The Serpent River First Nation is part of the unceded lands retained by the Ojibway who traditionally inhabited the North Shores of the St. Mary’s River and the Georgian Bay, of Northern Ontario Great Lakes Region.  The Serpent River First Nation is part of the Robinson Huron Treaty which was signed on September 5th, 1850.

The Serpent River First Nation is located approximately 160 kilometers east of  Sault Ste. Marie or approximately 140 kilometers west of Sudbury.  It is located 30 kilometers east of the Town of Blind River on the Trans- Canada Highway 17.  Two small communities flank the community: The Town of Spanish to the east and the Township of the Northshore (Serpent River) to the west.  Serpent River First Nations is a twenty-minute drive from the retirement community of Elliot Lake.  It is also bounded by the Serpent River and Grassy Lake to the north, Whalesback Channel and Lake Huron to the south and west.

The reserve consists of a land base of 26,947 acres along the north shore of Georgian Bay.  It is located on the Precambrian Shield and consists primarily of outcropping igneous and metamorphic rock containing large areas of granite.  This type of steeply rolling topography and its effects on groundwater limits the types and locations of developments in the community.  Mining, Forestry and Commercial Fishing have been the main employment areas.